Metenolone, also known as methenolone, or methenolipoic acid, sold commercially under the name Primobolan, is an anabolic androgenic steroid drug that is used primarily in the treatment of osteoporosis, or an increase in bone mineral density, due to spinal bone marrow deficiency. It is usually injected directly into the muscle, although it may be applied topically. Metenolone is a synthetic derivative of the hormone testosterone. It works by binding to the androgen receptors and thus acting on the enzyme that creates testosterone, and thus increasing its production in the body. It is sometimes combined with other hormones to produce a more all-encompassing hormonal therapy.
It was introduced to the United States in 1981 under the trade name methylprednisolone, and was commonly used to treat patients who had to have their legs removed. Recently, however, there has been widespread debate regarding whether or not it is still effective in treating athletic injuries, especially relating to use in tennis tournaments and high school sports. Athletes are concerned that the banned anabolic steroids diuretics may contribute to dehydration in athletes, and increase the risk of developing organ damage, blood clots, and nerve damage over time. Some recent studies show that the risks may be greater than previously believed. For this reason, the United States government banned the use of diuretics in 2021.
As a performance-enhancing drug, however, it is associated with some serious side effects. For one, it causes elevated heart rates, fluid retention, edema, electrolyte imbalance, constipation, decreased libido, increased bone pain, liver damage, jaundice, and liver failure. Users can also experience severe joint pains, kidney problems, muscle cramps, tremors, and allergic reactions. In addition, it has been found that low dosages can cause hyponatremia, which is the reversible loss of consciousness caused by low blood levels. Lastly, it can increase the risk of homicidal and suicidal thoughts and actions primobolan, depression, irritability, and other psychological disorders. Recreational users of primobolan have also been found to have high levels of cortisol, a stress hormone that increases both blood pressure and heart rate.
Due to these side effects, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) imposed restrictions on the manufacture, distribution, and sale of supplements containing regulated substances such as estrogens, testosterone, and estrogren. There are currently two supplements on the market containing these hormones, and the FDA is concerned that there is a high degree of customer confusion related to these products. Estrogenic-like substances that contain estrogens, but are not estrogen (such as a substance found in soy beans and certain supplements), and water retention have been found to display similar clinical characteristics and risk factors. The two supplements in question that were found to have these similarities are Meridia and Thyax. Because of this, the FDA placed the two products on the market under the term “esterioromodern,” which means “same like or equal to estrogen.”
Subsequently, the European Committee for Drug Safety (CDS) questioned the similarity of the herbs and the effects that the compounds demonstrated. The agency concluded that “a reasonable person would not be likely to confuse an estrogenic substance with a natural product.” Subsequently, the European Union banned the substance, while the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) lifted the ban later in 2021. While no formal definition for an estrogenic substance was cited by the FDA, it is generally assumed that primobolan acid is contained in some natural estrogens. Thus, while the substance may provoke some adverse effects in some patients, it appears that estrogenic side effects are minimal with the use of this herb.
As with all steroids, there can be side effects to taking excessive amounts. Such side effects include increased blood pressure, increased cholesterol levels, and heart attack, stroke, and type II diabetes. In many of these instances, patients must seek medical attention to safely adjust to the amount of estrogen they are taking. For patients who are unable to do so on their own, a licensed medical practitioner must be consulted to provide advice and assistance.